real viagra without perscription
where to get viagra
cialis women
buy viagra onli ne
cheap cialis in uk
sale viagra
buy low price viagra
canadian pharmacy cialis daily
soft cialis low cost
natural viagra pills
over the counter viagra replacment
cheap no prescription cialis
cialis lowest price
when viagra generic
comprar viagra generico
Energy Blue Print
Archive 2010

Moving from principles to action for energy supply that mitigates against climate change requires a long-term perspective. Energy infrastructure takes time to build up; new energy technologies take time to develop. Policy shifts often also need many years to take effect. In most world regions the transformation from fossil to renewable energies will require additional investment and higher supply costs over about twenty years

climate protection & energy policy

The greenhouse effect is the process by which the atmosphere traps some of the sun’s energy, warming the earth and moderating our climate. A human-driven increase in ‘greenhouse gases’ has enhanced this effect artificially, raising global temperatures and disrupting our climate. These greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, produced by burning fossil fuels and through deforestation, methane, released from agriculture, animals and landfill sites, and nitrous oxide, resulting from agricultural production, plus a variety of industrial chemicals.

Every day we damage our climate by using fossil fuels (oil, coal and gas) for energy and transport. As a result, climate change is already impacting on our lives, and is expected to destroy the livelihoods of many people in the developing world, as well as ecosystems and species, in the coming decades. We therefore need to significantly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. This makes both environmental and economic sense.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations forum for established scientific opinionon climate change, the world’s temperature could potentially increase over the next hundred years by up to 6.4° Celsius. This is much faster than anything experienced so far in human history. The goal of climate policy should be to avoid dangerous climate change, which is being translated in limiting global mean temperature rise, as compared to pre-industrial levels, well below 2°C above, or even below 1.5°C. Above these tresholds, we will reach dangerous tipping points and damage to ecosystems and disruption to the climate system increases dramatically. We have very little time within which we can change our energy system to meet these targets. This means that global emissions will have to peak and start to decline by 2015.

Climate change is already harming people and ecosystems. Its reality can be seen in disintegrating polar ice, thawing permafrost, dying coral reefs, rising sea levels and fatal heat waves. It is not only scientists that are witnessing these changes. From the Inuit in the far north to islanders near the Equator, people are already struggling with the impacts of climate change. An average global warming of 1.5°C threatens millions of people with an increased risk of hunger, malaria, flooding and water shortages. Never before has humanity been forced to grapple with such an immense environmental crisis. If we do not take urgent and immediate action to stop global warming, the damage could become irreversible. This can only happen through a rapid reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

This is a summary of some likely effects if we allow current trends to continue:

Likely effects of small to moderate warming

• Sea level rise due to melting glaciers and the thermal expansion of the oceans as global temperature increases. Massive releases of greenhouse gases from melting permafrost and dying forests.

• A greater risk of more extreme weather events such as heatwaves, droughts and floods. Already, the global incidence of drought has doubled over the past 30 years.

• Severe regional impacts. In Europe, river flooding will increase, as well as coastal flooding, erosion and wetland loss. Flooding will also severely affect low-lying areas in developing countries such as Bangladesh and South China.

• Natural systems, including glaciers, coral reefs, mangroves, alpine ecosystems, boreal forests, tropical forests, prairie wetlands and native grasslands will be severely threatened.

• Increased risk of species extinction and biodiversity loss.

The greatest impacts will be on poorer countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Andean South America as well as small islands least able to protect themselves from increasing droughts, rising sea levels, the spread of disease and decline in agricultural production.

longer term catastrophic effects Warming from emissions may trigger the irreversible meltdown of the Greenland ice sheet, adding up to seven metres of sea level rise over several centuries. New evidence shows that the rate of ice discharge from parts of the Antarctic mean it is also at risk of meltdown. Slowing, shifting or shutting down of the Atlantic Gulf Stream current will have dramatic effects in Europe, and disrupt the global ocean circulation system. Large releases of methane from melting permafrost and from the oceans will lead to rapid increases of the gas in the atmosphere, and consequent warming.


Read more in Chapter 1 of the usa energy [r]evolution report.