solar thermal technologies
Solar collectors depend on direct solar irradiation, so the yield strongly depends on the location. In very sunny regions even very simple collectors can provide hot water to households at very low cost. In Europe, thermosiphon systems can provide total hot water demand in households at around 400 €/m2 installation costs. In regions with less sun, where additional space heating is needed, installation cost for pumped systems are twice as high. In these areas, economies of scales can decrease solar heating costs significantly. Large scale solar collector system are known from 250-600 €/m2, depending on the share of solar energy in the whole heating system and the level of storage required. While those cost assumptions were transferred to all OECD Regions and the Eastern European Economies, a lower cost level for households was assumed in very sunny or developing regions.