global: future investments in the heat sector
Also in the heat sector the Energy [R]evolution scenario would require a major revision of current investment strategies in heating technologies. Especially the not yet so common solar and geothermal and heat pump technologies need an enormous increase in installations, if these potentials are to be tapped for the heat sector. Installed capacity needs to increase by the factor of 60 for solar thermal and even by the factor of 3,000 for geothermal and heat pumps. Capacity of biomass technologies, which are already rather wide spread still need to remain a main pillar of heat supply, however current combustion systems mostly need to be replaced by new efficient technologies.
Renewable heating technologies are extremely variable, from low tech biomass stoves and unglazed solar collectors to very sophisticated enhanced geothermal systems and solar themal district heating plants with seasonal storage.Thus it can only roughly be calculated, that the Energy [R]evolution scenario in total requires around $ 27,000 billion to be invested in renewable heating technologies until 2050 (including investments for replacement after the economic lifetime of the plants) - approximately $ 670 billion per year.