future investments in the heat sector
Also in the heat sector the Energy [R]evolution scenario would require a major revision of current investment strategies in direct heating technologies. Especially the not yet so common solar and up to now nonexistent geothermal and heat pump technologies need an enormous increase in installations, if these potentials are to be tapped for the heat sector. Installed capacity need to increase by the factor of 90 for solar thermal. Geothermal heat and heat pumps even first need to be introduced. Capacity of traditional biomass technologies, which are already rather wide spread need to be replaced by modern, efficient technologies in order to remain a main pillar of direct heat supply.
Renewable heating technologies are extremely variable, from low tech biomass stoves and unglazed solar collectors to very sophisticated enhanced geothermal systems and solar themal district heating plants with seasonal storage.Thus it can only roughly be calculated, that the Energy [R]evolution scenario in total requires around $ 698 billion to be invested in direct renewable heating technologies until 2050 (including investments for replacement after the economic lifetime of the plants) - approximately $ 17 billion per year.