5.5 heating supply
Today, renewables meet 16% of France’s heat demand, the main Reference and the Energy [R]evolution scenario contribution coming from the use of biomass. The existing district heating network needs to be expanded to allow for the large scale utilisation of geothermal and solar thermal energy. Dedicated support instruments are required to ensure a dynamic development. In the Energy [R]evolution scenario, renewables provide 48% of France’s total heat demand in 2030 and 82% in 2050.
- Energy efficiency measures help to reduce the currently growing energy demand for heating by 45% in 2050 (relative to the reference scenario), in spite of improving living standards.
- In the industry, solar collectors, geothermal energy (incl. heat pumps), as well as electricity and hydrogen from renewable sources are increasingly substituting for fossil fuel-fired systems.
- A shift from coal and oil to natural gas in the remaining conventional applications leads to a further reduction of CO2 emissions.
Table 5.2 shows the development of the different renewable technologies for heating in France over time. Up to 2020 biomass will remain the main contributors of the growing market share.
After 2020, the continuing growth of solar collectors and a growing share of geothermal heat pumps will reduce the dependence on fossil fuels.